Assault

Assault

At Law, an intentional act by one person that creates an apprehension in another of an imminent harmful or offensive contact. An assault is carried out by a threat of bodily harm coupled with an apparent, present ability to cause the harm. It is both a crime and a tort and, therefore, may result in either criminal or civil liability. Generally, the common law definition is the same in criminal and Tort Law. There is, however, an additional Criminal Law category of assault consisting of an attempted but unsuccessful Battery. Statutory definitions of assault in the various jurisdictions throughout the United States are not substantially different from the common-law definition. Elements Generally, the essential elements of assault consist of an act intended to cause an apprehension of harmful or offensive contact that causes apprehension of such contact in the victim. The act required for an assault must be overt. Although words alone are insufficient, they might create an assault when coupled with some action that indicates the ability to carry out the threat. A mere threat to harm is not an assault; however a threat combined with a raised fist might be sufficient if it causes a reasonable apprehension of harm in the victim.Intent is an essential element of assault. In tort law, it can be specific intent—if the assailant intends to cause the apprehension of harmful or offensive contact in the victim—or general intent—if he or she intends to do the act that causes such apprehension. In addition, the intent element is satisfied if it is substantially certain, to a reasonable person, that the act will cause the result. A defendant who holds a gun to a victim’s head possesses the requisite intent, since it is substantially certain that this act will produce an apprehension in the victim. In all cases, intent to kill or harm is irrelevant. In criminal law, the attempted battery type of assault requires a Specific Intent to commit battery. An intent to frighten will not suffice for this form of assault. There can be no assault if the act does not produce a true apprehension of harm in the victim. There must be a reasonable fear of injury. The usual test applied is whether the act would induce such apprehension in the mind of a reasonable person.The status of the victim is taken into account. A threat made to a child might be sufficient to constitute an assault, while an identical threat made to an adult might not. Virtually all jurisdictions agree that the victim must be aware of the danger. This element is not required, however, for the attempted battery type of assault. A defendant who throws a rock at a sleeping victim can only be guilty of the attempted-battery assault, since the victim would not be aware of the possible harm. Aggravated Assault An aggravated assault, punishable in all states as a felony, is committed when a defendant intends to do more than merely frighten the victim. Common types of aggravated assaults are those accompanied by an intent to kill, rob, or rape. An assault with a dangerous weapon is aggravated if there is an intent to cause serious harm. Pointing an unloaded gun at victim to frighten the individual is not considered an aggravated assault.

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Arson

Arson

Arson is defined as the will full and malicious burning or charring of property. There are many types of arson crimes, including setting fire to one’s property with fraudulent intent–such as to collect insurance money. While the majority of arson crimes involve damage to buildings, arson can also be committed by a person who sets fire…

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Juveniles

Juveniles

Juvenile Crime Law is a subcategory of Juvenile Law. Although a type of criminal law, juvenile crime law only deals with under-age individuals, who are treated very differently than adults in criminal law, and usually have their own courts of law. Minors under the age of 18 years, who commit a crime, or otherwise violate…

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Conspiracy

Conspiracy

An agreement between two or more persons to engage jointly in an unlawful or criminal act, or an act that is innocent in itself but becomes unlawful when done by the combination of actors. Conspiracy is governed by statute in federal courts and most state courts. Before its Codification in state and federal statutes, the crime of…

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Child Bullying

Child Bullying

Bullying is a serious matter that should not be taken lightly. Not only can bullying have devastating effects on school-age children, there can be legal consequences to teachers and schools who do not respond to substantiated cases of bullying on school grounds. The act of cyber bullying, in which mobile phones or other communications technology is…

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Real Estate

Real Estate

Mortgage fraud is a growing crime in New York City, her suburbs and throughout the entire state. Assistant District Attorneys aggressively prosecute Residential Mortgage Fraud, judges are often unsympathetic to those who perpetrate Residential Mortgage Fraud and New York criminal lawyers must remain vigilant and creative in their defence of clients accused of Residential Mortgage…

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Family Law

Family Law

If you have been charged with domestic violence in or around the New York City area, it is important that you contact a domestic violence defense attorney as soon as possible. At Raiser and Kenniff, PC, we are experienced criminal defense attorneys who have effectively defended countless individuals facing criminal charges. As former prosecutors, we…

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Personal Injury

Personal Injury

Personal injury cases can arise in nearly any place and at any time. If you have been injured, it is important to seek experienced legal counsel.Whether you have been the victim of a NJ car accident, trucking accident or dog bite, brain injury, construction accident, pharmacy error, wrongful death, work place injury or any other…

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Weapons Offenses

Weapons Offenses

What are weapons offenses? Weapons offenses are violations of statutes or regulations that control deadly weapons. Deadly weapons include firearms and their ammunition, silencers, explosives, and certain knives. About 2% of arrests nationwide in 1993 were for weapons offenses. All States, some localities, and the Federal Government have criminal laws concerning deadly weapons, including restrictions…

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Drug Crimes

Drug Crimes

Drugs are related to crime in multiple ways. Most directly, it is a crime to use, possess, manufacture, or distribute drugs classified as having a potential for abuse. Cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and amphetamines are examples of drugs classified to have abuse potential. Drugs are also related to crime through the effects they have on the…

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